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A deaf-mute janitor found the dog, her her, and then at the command of a mistress drowned, because the dog prevented her from sleeping. This is the plot of the story that the English philosopher Thomas Carlyle is called the most touching story.
Really, the story of Ivan Turgenev’s “Mumu” can be called the highest masterpiece of anti-serfdom propaganda. It is difficult to find a work of art, in which serfdom and tyranny will be displayed so that the children will cry rivers of tears. But that’s not all. In the story “Mumu”, the pronounced socio-political ideal of Turgenev, that is not always seen and is not always understood:
By the way, after the story of some of his contemporaries, criticized him for the literary “effects”: they say, show the death of the puppy. However, to blame Turgenev in vain, because the story is based on real events.
A deaf-mute janitor really was and the dog was. And, she was the mother of Turgenev. And described the house “on one of the outlying streets of Moscow” under the name of Ostozhenka, was and is now.
But how Turgenev wrote to his friend Ivan Aksakov, it does not matter whether in fact, Gerasim. He became the perfect symbol of the Russian people, its “unfathomable power and meekness”, and most importantly, silence. And the death of a little dog with long ears and expressive eyes, a big blow to the reputation of the landlords’ power in Russia and the reputation of the autocracy in the General.
And true, story “Mumu” like you do not leave the old order is no moral justification. It is known that Turgenev serfdom called “personal enemy” and at a young age brought his animelove an oath to fight to the end. But what Turgenev wanted to see Russian life after serfdom? What was his socio-political ideal? With this we will try to understand. And Gerasim and Mumu will help us in this.
You need to start with the most painful memories of childhood Turgenev were associated with violence: it was brought up by the mother, and for all the faults she hit him. Or instructed to beat. “I do not remember my childhood, wrote Turgenev.” “No bright memories.” Hardly a day passed without the rods; when I dared to ask, for which I was punished, the mother categorically said: , guess “”.
If to the children of the brutal, the cruelty to the peasants knew no bounds. Someone always sec in the stables. That is all everyday life. Turgenev house was saturated with violence.
But what is interesting: if to the question, why flog the peasants, we have an intuitive response, it is not completely clear why all the time to whip children? What’s the point? You need every day to beat your child with rods, he grew up a very good person? No! He grew up a good host! Sich nobles (and it applies to exclusive educational institutions) need from childhood that they could then flog. It is unpleasant, but necessary. Do not keep the peasants in fear, everything will fall apart, and so on.
But, apparently, the mother of Turgenev overdone and got the opposite result: the son became a passionate opponent of serfdom. “The stable was close, wrote Turgenev, and it gave me an aversion to all that I’ve seen around.”
But, carefully reading Turgenev, we note that its denial of serfdom is not only a humanism and compassion for the plight of the people. “Physical authority over their vassals – the right not only vile, but also dangerous,” he wrote. Excessive violence can lead to rebellion. “Your Gerasim still dumb, but eventually he’ll talk!” – wrote Turgenev, Ivan Aksakov, referring to the Russian people. Talk, but maybe take the fork. Turgenev felt it.
It is still important that his story “Mumu” Turgenev wrote in the conclusion. After article-obituary, which was dedicated to the memory of Gogol in which the authorities saw sedition, Turgenev’s a month placed on the shizzow. And near the camera, where he was a writer, was the execution room, where he was guilty of the peasants in the Russian landowners, who for some reason were not able to do their own thing, could entrust it to the state .
And here again, Turgenev, as a child, constantly heard the cries and groans of torture through the wall. And wrote “Mumu”. And maybe that’s why his character is Gerasim, he came up with a riot. Gerasim, on the orders of the mistress drowned the dog, who prevented her from sleeping, his beloved dog, but in his head something clicked, he got up and snuck out from Moscow to the village where he was forcibly taken away two years ago . This facial is described by Turgenev solemnly. He is the strength of human dignity. It is a powerful scene.
But the most striking thing in the history of this is Silent, who lived in the mother of Turgenev at Ostozhenka, is that he has not gone anywhere. A story by Turgenev, reliable in everything except the ending. The silent janitor’s name was Andrew, he drowned the dog, now, but remained faithful to his mistress until her death.
And the story is a riot. But this is not Pushkin’s revolt, “senseless and merciless”, but rather the velvet revolution, advocate which was Turgenev. And it is crucial that Gerasim does his turn, he returned to the village, and, “after praying before the images, and immediately he went to the headman”. “The elder was at first surprised, writes Turgenev, but hay had just begun; Gerasim as a great worker, immediately took the scythe in his hands and went to mow it the old way.
That is, Gerasim defended their human dignity, and hastened to return to his normal peasant labor. In fact, it is the ideal of Turgenev.
In General, Turgenev believed that it was taken out of the primordial life of the peasants, that is, servants living in the city, be sure to turn into a parody of themselves, lose their dignity and power. Behind these words we can see the influence of the ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau about the natural man. Rousseau’s “New Heloise,” the man becomes unhappy only when he tyrannize, “and forced to do something that is his nature of a farmer. Turgenev thought the same!
Farmers in Rossijskoj paradigm, as it is understood Turgenev, is a class of children of nature, not spoiled by civilization. They are wise and dolgorucky, but they can not affect their own destiny. So they need to grant human rights, legal equality. But to no other equation can be considered because of their nature they are born to plow the lordly earth.
In the “Note about serfdom” 1857, written five years after “Mumu” Turgenev once wrote that to keep a person in slavery – is a crime. But one of the great problems faced by the therapists of the emancipation of the serfs in Russia is the common belief serfs that the land they cultivate, “belongs to their ancestors and their children were born”. “We need to help them to understand” Turgenev, that they do not own anything: neither the fields nor houses nor cattle; that all of them will be given to them on loan by the owner of the land, which they in return will have to pay rent. ” In short, we must liberate the peasants and give them land on lease. Then the landlords will lose an outrageous (and dangerous) power over slaves, but perhaps increase their wealth. Multiply!
Historian-Marxist Mikhail Pokrovsky was convinced that the desire to increase the productivity of the riches. Humane words. That is to say, that the flags of the peasants in the stables and no one else would. Pokrovsky wrote that the peasants were very lucky that the Decembrist uprising failed. Reading “a Note on serfdom”, Pokrovsky, perhaps, would have made similar conclusions about Turgenev the project.
But, of course, Turgenev did not think about any operation. This Marxist term can only be confusing. He wanted the greater good. The final scene, when Gerasim returned to the village from the cruel ladies, it’s his own ode to liberty, it’s high poetry. It is felt that this enthusiasm had Turgenev during its writing.
“He was walking on it (on the highway) with a kind of indomitable courage, and with a desperate yet joyful determination.” He went, opened wide his chest, eyes and straight rushed forward. -old woman was waiting for him at home, as if she had been to him after her long wanderings on the other side, the strangers … “Over him singing quail and korosteli, which the deaf could not hear. But we understand that it is not Gerasim and Turgenev himself in his dreams goes on freedom, because he writes it under arrest. And in Russia it is time Gerasim is also clamped and not free, as its Creator.
“He felt the familiar smell of ripening rye, which was screamed with a dark field, felt the wind, flying to meet him, the wind from the homeland with whom I had a struck at his face, played in his hair and beard; he saw before he was in the sky the tallest of the legs. And so on and so forth.
So in the story “Mumu” by Turgenev, of course, is a criticism of serfdom and autocracy, you can find the features of the social ideal of aristocratic liberalism. But first and foremost is the great love story and hymn to liberty, which everyone inside.
candidate of political sciences, associate professor of history of socio-political doctrines, faculty of political science MSU named after M. V. Lomonosov
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