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MOSCOW, 22 APR – RIA Novosti, Tatiana Pichugina. Rockets on chemical fuel is able to deliver people to the moon, Mars, Venus. But to explore the other planets of the Solar system and go beyond it, we need ships to a nuclear or thermonuclear fuel vzryvaet. RIA Novosti talks about the projects vzryvaet and anticipated timing for interplanetary missions.
The principle of the spacecraft, moving by the energy of the nuclear charge, Stanislaw Ulam before the space age, in 1947. According to his theory, the detonation from the sequential nuclear explosions can be attached to the vehicle by a metal shield and thus to accelerate.
In 1957 in the United States in the framework of the project "Orion" began to develop a model of nuclear propulsion and testing. The ship was intended for the military to move nuclear warheads. It included a compartment with a cassette for fuel, shield-thruster, cargo Bay. Manned option would require the installation of shock absorbers for damping jerks. In addition to the benefits of speed, vzryvaet takes on Board much more of a payload than a rocket on chemical fuel.
"This idea is attractive for the first time only interstellar expedition"- explains RIA Novosti Anton Pervushin, the writer, a specialist on the history of Astronautics.
Scientists calculated, what if you blow up one charge every three seconds, when the acceleration is equal to one, the spaceship will reach three hundred of the speed of the light.
The idea of a space propulsion nuclear explosions has expressed Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov in 1962. His concept was recognized very challenging, but promising.
All work on vzryvaet ceased in 1963 when he signed an international treaty banning nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere outer space and under water.
In 1971, the German physicist Fredward Winterberg proposed to accelerate the space ship thermonuclear reaction.
Nuclear fusion energy 26 million times superior chemical hydrogen-oxygen rocket fuel and gives much more energy than nuclear. But an order of magnitude is less than the explosion in the interaction of matter and antimatter. The problem is that of all potential fuels.
Despite the utopian ideas of the fusion engine, it was supported by members of the British interplanetary society, and two years later established established the project "Daedalus".
Thermonuclear fusion occurs in the interiors of stars. To run on the required monstrous temperature and the fuel hydrogen or hydrogen and helium. The calculations showed that the fusion energy of a mixture of deuterium and helium-3 can be developed 12 percent of the speed of light is 36 thousand kilometers per second. "Daedalus" would reach Barnard’s star, located at a distance of 5.9 light-years from Earth, in half a century. For comparison, the fastest spacecraft "Voyager 1" overclocked to 17.02 kilometers per second due to the gravitational maneuver near Saturn.
Structurally, the ship was a large tank with fuel. Strong magnetic fields.
In 1978, work on "The Daedalus" turned.
"Unfortunately, the projects vzryvaet are unable to develop completely because of a treaty to ban nuclear tests in three environments (ocean, atmosphere and space), signed in 1963. While it does not reconsider any concept vzryvaet"- said Anton Pervushin.
In 2010, enthusiasts made another attempt to revive the dream of a vzryvaet and founded the project "Icarus". They were supported by the British Interplanetary Society and the Foundation "Tau Zero".
The participants of the project "Icarus" took as a basis the developments "Daedalus" and analyzed the main aspects of the future mission. It is proposed to launch a small unmanned probe on fusion propulsion to several targets within 15 light-years from us. To study in detail one or two stars and six or seven planets, it will take a full set of equipment. Gas helium-3, which is a little on the Ground, in orbit of gas giants like Jupiter. Given the pace of technology development, to carry out such a mission will be no earlier than 2300 years.
In addition to legal restrictions, projects vzryvaet many unsolved technical problems. It is not clear where to take the fuel for a fusion reaction as it is in the chamber as a damping acceleration, how to protect the crew from cosmic radiation, and in the General, which of the schemes of space will be the most workable.
However, according to Pervushin, if ever people want to send a large spacecraft to the nearest stars, other option but vzryvotehniki, just no.