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Sharks also carry eggs

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It is known that about 70% of species of sharks are viviparous, but the remaining 30% do lay eggs. Animated image, which appeared on the resource Reddit, impressed users. When the shark’s egg is illuminated with a flashlight, you can see the wriggling shadow of the embryo inside.

Each egg shark contains an embryo and a yolk sac, as is the egg of a chicken. The image also shows the umbilical cord that connects the small shark with the nutrient. But unlike chicken eggs, sharks’ eggs are encased in a leather waterproof shell. This sturdy protection is needed by the embryo, as the mother sharks leave their offspring immediately after procrastination.

Given their strange appearance and contents, sharks’ eggs are often called “mermaid purses”. Eggs of some species have long horny appendages, and sometimes they are called “diabolical purses”. The shape and size of the eggs depend on the type of fish. For example, in Californian bull shark, the shoots of eggs are twisted in the form of a corkscrew, so that it is easier for them to cling to the rocky corners where sharks usually lay them. Egg in the image can belong to a white spotted cat shark – a species that is suitable for domestic aquariums.

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Chinese engineers developed a a powerful wall platform that helps workers build incredibly high skyscrapers. Last year in China, more than half of the skyscrapers in the world were built, and the country does not plan to lower the speed of its urbanization.

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The machine for building skyscrapers was called the “monster-climber”. It weighs 2000 tons and is a platform for workers, which with the help of twelve hydraulic jacks rises as the construction of the next floor of the building ends. The platform can withstand weight up to 2000 tons, can remain stable even at an altitude of 500 meters and with a hurricane wind.

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Upgraded equipment accelerates the construction process by 20%. Currently, the machine is used to build a skyscraper in Wuhan. The 119-story skyscraper will be completed by the end of 2018.

A photo: CCTV

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Scientists from the United States found out, How exactly the Yellowstone volcano appeared and why it accumulates magma and erupts with a certain periodicity.

The Yellowstone volcano is actually a volcanic caldera – a vast hollow of volcanic origin. It is located in Yellowstone National Park in the northwest of the US and is known as the Yellowstone Super Volcano.

Using computer modeling, scientists uncovered the mystery of the appearance of the volcano and its periodic eruptions. At a shallow depth below the caldera, two clusters of hot magma (one above the other) were found, surrounded by colder magma rocks. A “transition zone” was defined where the magma bodies almost coincide. Here they form a large plate of solidified rock that maintains the pressure of the magma at the surface of the earth and can cause eruptions of the supervolcan, causing the magma from the upper cluster to periodically flow.

According to experts, the new study does not allow predicting the next eruption of Yellowstone super volcano, but it helps to better understand its structure and the principle of moving molten igneous rocks.

Scientists found in human DNA, signs that evolutionary changes are happening to us right now. The results of the studies showed that the strongest mutations affect the functions of the heart and reproductive function.

Geneticists from Queensland University (Australia) analyzed DNA data from 126,545 people in an anonymous health database in the UK. Having studied the genomes of people of different generations, the researchers stated that they found signs of negative selection (removal of harmful variants of genes) on several grounds. The most notable changes were associated with cardiovascular function and reproductive function. The changes underwent waist circumference and waist / hip ratio in general, as excess fat around the waist was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There were also signs of a change in blood pressure. The age of women during puberty, first birth and menopause showed marked fluctuations.

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Scientists say that evolutionary changes occur frequently, but not all of them take root definitively. For the evolutionary development of a certain line, it takes about a million years. The aim of the study was not to accurately determine the changes in the genome, but assumed that we would be able to learn more about evolution and how selection works.

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The team of engineers at the Nanyang Technological University in Singapore managed to program two robotic machines so that they were able to assemble a chair from the local IKEA.

The researchers used two robotic arms, which are commonly used in factories. Individual parts of the chair were laid out in a random order, as the authors of the paper note. With the help of 3D cameras and power sensors, a couple of hands collected a chair in just over 20 minutes.

The complexity of the experiment was that such industrial robots usually work with very precise and predefined patterns. They are not designed to perform small movements and control the amount of force applied. Therefore, engineers installed robots force sensors, which prevented them from shattering the details of the chair. Scientists also had to develop a rigid algorithm and a clear sequence of actions, so it is unlikely that in the near future robots will be massively used to build furniture.

A photo: Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore

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Engineers of the Federal Polytechnic School of Lausanne in Switzerland developed a FlyJacket – an exoskeleton that allows the user to control an unmanned aerial vehicle. The costume includes VR-glasses, gloves and a soft upper case, which synchronizes the movement of a person with a drone. To control the user, you need to spread your hands. The UAV will move, considering all the user’s movements, and the camera installed on it will broadcast the video to the VR-glasses.

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The exoskeleton is equipped with motion sensors and special handholds, if during the “flight” the user becomes tired. The costume can fix movements and transform them into turns of the drone. Researchers believe that the project has commercial potential. The costume is made of light and inexpensive materials, it suits people of different builds and is conveniently placed in a backpack.

Now engineers are working on additional costume functions and improving the teams that he can give to the drone. Researchers want to achieve feedback tactile communication to improve flight efficiency.

A photo: EPFL LIS

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