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The program of lunar exploration, which was simultaneously rolled into the Soviet Union and the United States in the mid-1970s, became popular and in demand. The lunar race, which seemed long in the past, again gaining momentum. Today, scientists in many countries are convinced that humanity is at that stage of its development, which can ensure the transformation of the moon into outer space. Outpost of civilization. To do this, the leading countries of the world has it all: numerous spaceports, lunar Rovers, return to Earth modules and boosters heavy class.
The two main issues of the Lunar program in its modern reincarnation are the following questions: why do the Terrans need the Moon, and what technologies will help humanity to colonize it? The answer to these questions today is looking for scientists from many countries of the world. Interest in the only natural satellite of the Earth show today, Russia, USA, EU countries, China, India and Japan. About the moon, George W. Bush announced the resumption of the lunar program. Later, in 2007 and 2013, orbiting and landing modules to the moon sent to China. And in 2014, plans for the exploration of the moon were voiced by Dmitry Rogozin, who served as Vice-Premier of the Russian government.
In the mid-70’s of the last century, it was believed that it was necessary to fly to the moon. Today the Moon is once again becoming relevant and the scientists around the world seem to find the answers, which requires the resumption of lunar programs. Despite the fact that the political motivation behind the exploration of the moon is now missing, there are new incentives. For example, updating lunar programs after more than half a century of oblivion may be associated with the high technological level of today’s civilization, which requires a really ambitious goals for further development. Also, this process can be linked with the development and prospects of private spaceflight. Today in the Arsenal of the global space industry has everything you need to “conquer” the moon, only to accurately determine the goals and objectives of the lunar programs.
The Russian space industry has a huge experience of the lunar launches, which had previously been accumulated by Soviet engineers and scientists. The Soviet spacecraft made the first soft landing on the moon, photographed the back of the natural satellite of the Earth and took samples of soil-regolith. The world’s first lunar Rover successfully worked on the surface of the celestial body, commonly known as “Lunokhod-1” deserves credit for the Soviet space program. Rover worked on the moon’s surface from 17 Nov 1970 14 Sep 1971.
Today, manned missions to the moon included again on the basis of public policy, RIA News. In the framework of the Federal space program for 2016-2025, developed the project “Luna-glob”, which involves the start-up of the natural satellite of the Earth series automatic stations. The implementation of this project has been NPO Lavochkin. The President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin, in the course of the visit 12 April 2018 new pavilion “Space” at ENEA, said that the lunar program will be implemented.
The nearest plans of the Russian lunar program
On the first stage of the Russian lunar the program provides for the launch to the moon of five automatic stations in 2019-2025. All the runs you plan to perform with a new cosmodrome “East”. The study of the moon, the automatic stations, the site of the selection for the expansion of human presence. The information obtained on required resources can help to determine the location of a lunar base.
On the first stage of the Russian lunar program has the following scientific problem: the study of the composition of matter and physical processes at the poles of the moon; study of properties of ecosphere and processes of interaction of space plasma with the surface at the lunar poles; a study of the internal structure of the natural satellite of the Earth using the methods of global seismometry; a study of cosmic rays of ultrahigh energies.
Currently, the nearest plans of Russia for the study of the moon
2019 – the launch of the spacecraft Luna-25. Mission – the study of the surface of the moon near the South pole.
2022 – launch Luna-26. The mission of – distance learning moon, communications for the subsequent lunar missions.
2023 – the start-up of 3 and 4 spacecraft “Luna-27” (primary and backup landing probes). Mission – development of technologies for the creation of the lunar surface a permanent base, the study of the regolith and ecosphere of the moon.
2025 – launch of spacecraft “Luna-28”. The mission is to deliver to the Earth’s surface temperature-controlled samples of lunar soil that will be mined.
How to use the moon
Many scientists believe that the cosmic expansion is a logical step in the further development of mankind. Sooner or later, our civilization will reach out to the Mars or other planets of the Solar system.
Special hopes experts associated with the possibility of mining the moon for various minerals, releasing all the helium – 3. This substance is called the energy of the future and the treasure of the moon. In the future it can be used as fuel for fusion energy. Hypothetically, when fusion with the reaction of one ton of substance, helium-3, and at 0.67 tons of deuterium must be released energy equivalent to burning 15 million tons of oil (but not yet explored the technical possibility of such a reaction). This is without taking into account the fact that helium-3 on the lunar surface will have some way to get. And this will not be easy, since according to the content of helium-3 in lunar regolith. Therefore, for the extraction of tons of lunar soil. However, if all the problems with his extraction and use could be resolved, helium-3 can supply energy to all humanity for millennia to come. For scholars of interest and water reserves that are also contained in the lunar soil.
The scientific potential of the moon. Experts still do not know how it is formed by satellite of the Earth and the answer to this question is obviously not on our planet. Also the Moon seems to be an excellent platform for astrophysical observations. Technically install on the surface of the telescopes can now. Also the moon will be easier to monitor. And in the distant future, mankind will be able to think about how to move to the moon.
Super-heavy launch vehicles
Currently, the issue of the need for super heavy launch vehicles for missions to the moon remains debatable. Someone believes that without missiles, can carry up to 80-120 tons payload, can not do, and can not do it, and someone on the contrary. In any case, global aerospace can provide the creation of such missiles. Experience in the development enough: Soviet boosters “N-1”, “Energy”, “Volcano” and the American “Saturn-5”, “Ares V”.
Currently in USA working on two projects of such missiles – Space Launch System, the launch is postponed and successfully tested a private rocket, the Falcon Heavy. In China, the long March-9, calculated from 130 tons of payload. In Russia, tested missiles family “Angara” and are working on a super heavy rocket “Energy 5”. Lack of space vehicles to use the super-heavy carrier rockets on the ground currently no: Baikonur, Vostochny, in Kourou, French Guiana Vandenberg and Florida, 4 of the spaceport in China.
It is planned that the first launch of the new Russian heavy carrier rocket “Energy 5” will take place until 2028, and launch complex for her at the spaceport “East” will be ready in 2027. This was previously reported by the Agency TASS with reference to own sources in the space industry. The pad for the new Russian missiles will be built according to the principles implemented for the Soviet carrier rocket “Energy” at the Baikonur cosmodrome (site No. 250). It is reported that this will be the universal launch complex, which will also be able to launch carrier rockets. “Soyuz-5” middle class and connections of two, three or five of these missiles (to reach a different capacity). It is the principle of the merger of the Russian superheavy rocket “Energiya-5”.
“Energy-5V-PTK” and “Energy-5BP-PTK” with a starting weight and 2368 2346 tons. Both versions of the rocket will be able to output in low earth orbit up to 100 tons of cargo, and on the lunar orbit to 20.5 tons of payload – mass “moon” versions of the developed vehicle “Federation”.
According to calculations of the space technology, the Agency for the development of the launch vehicle of the super heavy class and the establishment of the necessary infrastructure on the Vostochny cosmodrome will cost about 1.5 trillion rubles. Also Roscosmos has been stated that until 2030 to hurry with the creation of such missiles is not necessary, because they are just no payloads. At the same time, previously RSC Energia said that the creation of a new Russian heavy rocket will be 1.5 times cheaper than a reproduction of the Soviet carrier rocket “Energy”, which together with the spacecraft “Buran” was the most ambitious program in the history of Russian space rocketry.
Station in orbit and a lunar base
As the intermediate phase, there are projects for the construction of its orbit. On the implementation of such plans in the period from 2025 to 2030 has already said Russia, USA and China. To doubt that this project will be implemented, is not necessary. Over the shoulders of the international community currently has extensive experience in the successful operation of the ISS. Earlier, the US and Russia have agreed on joint work on the international manned lunar station, Deep Space Gateway. On the project also work with the EU, Canada and Japan. It is possible to participate in the program and the BRICS countries. Russia in the framework of this project can create from one to three modules for the new station airlock and residential units.
The next step after the establishment of the lunar manned station. On the natural satellite of the Earth, the magnetic field and atmosphere, the lunar surface is continuously bombarded by micrometeorites, and temperature extremes. All this is not the most friendly place for human beings. To work on its surface is possible only in space suits, and pressurized Rovers or stationary from inside the habitable module. To deploy such a module will be more convenient near the South pole of our satellite. There is always light and less fluctuations in temperature. It is planned that at the first stage the Assembly of the housing module will engage the robots. After manned flights to the moon will be developed, the construction of a lunar module will expand.
The first inhabitants of our satellite initially deployed on its surface communications with the space station and Earth, and then proceed to run power plants. You will need to study the issue of protecting the moon from solar flares and cosmic radiation. For this plan to cover it with the meter layer of regolith, for example, by lateral blasts, so as to deliver to the lunar surface. Dump trucks and excavators will have little meaning. To build on the moon will have on the completely different technology: printing the structural elements on the 3D-printer; to use inflatable modules; create composites from lunar soil by the high temperature synthesis and laser sintering.
In a residential lunar module, it will develop a vegetable greenhouse. Of key importance will be given to self-sufficiency lunar base. Only in this way will reduce the amount of money. Currently fundamental obstacles to colonizing the moon person does not exist, but in the end will look like the first manned lunar base.
Sources of information:
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